Friday, 6 March 2015

Probability Theory: Convergence in Distribution Problem

Let's solve some theoretical problem in probability, specifically on convergence. The problem below is originally from Exercise 5.42 of Casella and Berger (2001). And I just want to share my solution on this. If there is an incorrect argument below, I would be happy if you could point that to me.


Let $X_1, X_2,\cdots$ be iid (independent and identically distributed) and $X_{(n)}=\max_{1\leq i\leq n}x_i$.
  1. If $x_i\sim$ beta(1,$\beta$), find a value of $\nu$ so that $n^{\nu}(1-X_{(n)})$ converges in distribution;
  2. If $x_i\sim$ exponential(1), find a sequence $a_n$ so that $X_{(n)}-a_n$ converges in distribution.


  1. Let $Y_n=n^{\nu}(1-X_{(n)})$, we say that $Y_n\rightarrow Y$ in distribution. If $$\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}F_{Y_n}(y)=F_Y(y).$$ Then, $$ \begin{aligned} \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}F_{Y_n}(y)&=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}P(Y_n\leq y)=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}P(n^{\nu}(1-X_{(n)})\leq y)\\ &=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}P\left(1-X_{(n)}\leq \frac{y}{n^{\nu}}\right)\\ &=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}P\left(-X_{(n)}\leq \frac{y}{n^{\nu}}-1\right)=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\left[1-P\left(-X_{(n)}> \frac{y}{n^{\nu}}-1\right)\right]\\ &=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\left[1-P\left(\max\{X_1,X_2,\cdots,X_n\}< 1-\frac{y}{n^{\nu}}\right)\right]\\ &=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\left[1-P\left(X_1< 1-\frac{y}{n^{\nu}},X_2< 1-\frac{y}{n^{\nu}},\cdots,X_n< 1-\frac{y}{n^{\nu}}\right)\right]\\ &=\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\left[1-P\left(X_1< 1-\frac{y}{n^{\nu}}\right)^n\right],\;\text{since}\;X_i's\;\text{are iid.} \end{aligned} $$

Thursday, 26 February 2015

R: How to Layout and Design an Infographic

As promised from my recent article, here's my tutorial on how to layout and design an infographic in R. This article will serve as a template for more infographic design that I plan to share on future posts. Hence, we will go through the following sections:
  1. Layout - mainly handles by grid package.
  2. Design - style of the elements in the layout.
    • Texts - use extrafont package for custom fonts;
    • Shapes (lines and point characters) - use grid, although this package has been removed from CRAN (as of February 26, 2015), the compressed file of the source code of the package is still available. But if I am not mistaken, by default this package is included in R. You might check it first before installing.
    • Plots - several choices for plotting data in R: base plot, lattice, or ggplot2 package.

The Infographic

We aim to obtain the following layout and design in the final output of our code:

Wednesday, 18 February 2015

Philippine Infographic: Recapitulation on Incidents Involving Motorcycle Riding in Tandem Criminals for 2011-2013

The Philippine government has launched Open Data Philippines ( last year, January 16, 2014. Accordingly, the aims to make national government data searchable, accessible, and useful, with the help of the different agencies of government, and with the participation of the public. This website consolidates the data sets of different government agencies, allowing users to find specific information from a rich and continuously growing collection of public data sets. provides information on how to access these datasets and tools, such infographics and other applications, to make the information easy to understand. Users may not only view the datasets, but also share and download them as spreadsheets and other formats, for their own use.

The primary goal of is to foster a citizenry empowered to make informed decisions, and to promote efficiency and transparency in government. For more, check out the video: